Emissions Impacts Assessment
When conducting an emissions analysis, the EES group estimates the reduction in power sector emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and mercury (Hg) from potential amended energy conservation standards. In addition, the group estimates emissions impacts in production activities (extracting, processing, and transporting fuels) that provide the energy inputs to power plants. These are referred to as "upstream" emissions. Together, these emissions account for the full-fuel-cycle (FFC). The FFC analysis also includes impacts of standards on emissions of methane and nitrous oxide, both of which are recognized as greenhouse gases.
The emissions analysis is conducted using emissions factors derived from data in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (AEO 2012), supplemented by data from other sources. EIA prepares the Annual Energy Outlook using NEMS. Each annual version of NEMS incorporates the projected impacts of existing air quality regulations on emissions.